Meringue is a type of dessert, often associated with Swiss and French cuisine, made from whipped egg whites and sugar, and occasionally an acid such as cream of tartar or a small amount of lemon. A binding agent such as cornstarch or gelatin may also be added. The addition of powdered sugar, which usually contains corn starch, to the uncooked meringue produces a pavlova, a national dish of Australia and New Zealand. The key to the formation of a good meringue is the formation of stiff peaks. When egg whites are beaten, some of the hydrogen bonds in the proteins break, causing the proteins to unfold and to aggregate non-specifically. This change in structure leads to the stiff consistency required for meringues. The use of cream of tartar is required to additionally denature the proteins to create the firm peaks, otherwise the whites will not be firm. Greasy bowls will likely result in the meringue mix being prevented from becoming peaky. When beating egg whites, they are classified in three stages according to the peaks they form when the beater is lifted: soft, firm, and stiff peaks. Sugar substitutes are not useful in meringue. The sugar is necessary to the structure.
This is the easiest method. In a stand mixer fitted with the whisk attachment, beat egg whites with lemon juice. Keep meringue to foamy stage prior adding cooked sugar. Cook sugar and water to 250ºF/121ºC and pour in thin stream into the foamy egg whites increasing speed as you go. Continue beating on high until stiff peaks, lower speed and beat meringue until cool.